Benjamim Medina
Bem, vou postando e criando temas, para podermos comentarmos e debatermos de uma forma respeitosa, e de nível, obrigado


[13] Embora seja uma tradição em dizer que o "querubim da guarda ungido" mencionado em Ezequiel 28:1-19 se refira tanto ao rei de Tiro quanto ao diabo/Satanás, a Escritura (Bíblia) NÃO diz que o QUERUBIM da Guarda Ungido seja o diabo/Satanás, NEM diz que tenha sido músico regente. O termo
QUERUBIM da Guarda Ungido se refere ao Rei de Tiro, provavelmente, de
maneira sarcástica, de zombaria. Segundo a Escritura (Bíblia), Deus zomba
dos ímpios (Sl 2:1-5 – Sl 37:12,13) e o Rei de Tiro era ímpio, altivo,
dizia que era “Deus”(Ez 28:2) e havia adquirido "OURO E PRATA" (EZ 28:4) e, através do “COMÉRCIO”, as riquezas do rei de Tiro aumentaram (Ez 28:5).


[14] Deus manda Ezequiel falar contra o rei de Tiro (Ez 28:12) e Ezequiel, falando ao rei de Tiro, disse que ele (= o rei de Tiro) estava no Éden

(jardim de Deus) e que se cobria de "PEDRAS PRECIOSAS" (Ez 28:13) e que era “Querubim da Guarda (Ungido)” (Ez 28:14,16); o Éden mencionado em Ezequiel 28:13, provavelmente, se refere à cidade Éden mencionada em Ezequiel 27:23.



[15] Esse “Querubim da Guarda” tinha um ótimo “COMÉRCIO” e, devido a altivez, esse querubim (= rei de Tiro) foi expulso do monte de Deus (Ez

28:16), foi lançado, por terra, diante dos reis (Ez 28:17), foi queimado e reduzido a cinzas (Ez 28:18)



[16] Quem é o querubim da guarda (ungido)?

A passagem bíblica diz que "o querubim da guarda ungido" é “O REI DE TIRO”; veja que Deus manda Ezequiel falar contra o rei de Tiro (Ez 28:12); Deus

manda Ezequiel chamar o rei de Tiro de “querubim da guarda (ungido)” (Ez 28:13,14); veja que o querubim da guarda (ungido) tinha um COMÉRCIO, da

mesma forma que o rei de Tiro tinha (compare Ez 28:16 com Ez 28:5) e veja

que ele foi queimado e reduzido a cinzas (Ez 28:18)



[17] Quando aconteceu a queda do querubim da guarda (ungido)? Antes do Surgimento de Adão?

O querubim da guarda ungido, mencionado em Ezequiel 28:13,14, caiu DEPOIS

do surgimento de Adão, pois "o querubim da guarda ungido" tinha

um COMÉRCIO (Ez 28:16), e os reis viram a sua destruição (Ez 28:18)



[18] PERGUNTA: O Líder de Tiro Era Rei ou Príncipe?

RESPOSTA: Em Ezequiel 28:2, aparece a expressão “o príncipe de Tiro” e a palavra hebraica para “príncipe” é “nagiyd”.

A palavra hebraica “nagiyd

” (James Strong: H5057 nagiyd) pode significar “líder, governador, capitão, príncipe”.

RESPOSTA: Em Ezequiel 28:12, aparece a expressão “o rei de Tiro” e a palavra hebraica para “rei” é “melek”.

A palavra hebraica “melek

” (James Strong: H4428 melek) significa “rei”.

Em 01/04/2013 21:57, "Benjamim Medina" <


No meu entendimento profecias como essas possuem aplicações de duplo sentido. Como há reais semelhanças entre os dois personagens, tende-se a explicar o espiritual não visível através do temporal visível e facilmente compreensível.


Eric Koenigkam.


PERGUNTA: Quais sãos as semelhanças entre as duas personagens: o rei de

Tiro e Sananás? Poderia enumerar as semelhanças, por gentileza?

Em 02/04/2013 03:54, "Eric Koenigkam" <


SE for o mesmo rei de I Reis 5. 1 - 12, ele foi grandemente favorecido. Participou ativamente da engenharia do templo e recebeu enorme quantia por desempenhar dons naturais, que na verdade vieram do ETERNO. Até aí tudo bem SE mais tarde não fosse denunciado pelo profeta Ezequiel.


Benjamim Medina; ha satan só aparece em Jó e não é "diabo".


Meu caro Paulo Sergio Villasanti, lembro-lhe que a figura de ha Satan surge antes de Job, com a figura de Amalek («Amalek is compared with demons and evil spirits and "there is none so cursed among them [ie demons and evil spirits] as Amalek, who is the evil serpent, the 'strange god' He is the cause of all unchastity and murder, and his twin-soul is the poison of idolatry, the two together being called Samael (lit. poison-god). There is more than on Samael, and they are not all equal, but this side of the serpent is accursed above them all." Thus Amalek is seen by the Zohar as the embodiment of evil, an evil both within and without, even before the incident at Rephidim»). Vide esta citação: « The L-RD "will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven!" (Exodus 17:14). Furthermore, Joshua is told that (verse 16) "The L-RD will be at war with Amalek throughout the ages." Moshe, addressing the new generation of Israelites in Deuteronomy 25:19, states again what G-d commanded "you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven. Do not forget!" Why, if it is Israel's lack of faith the G-d was with them, their violations, will G-d war with Amalek "throughout the ages"?


Deuteronomy 25:18 states that Amalek itself was "undeterred by fear of G-d, he surprised you on the march, when you were famished and weary, and cut down all the stragglers in your rear". Amalek, attacking Israel from the rear, attacking the stragglers, was showing fear of man, yet they had no fear of G-d. The attack is so reprehensible, the Amalekites so lacking in fear of G-d, that G-d will command Saul (I Samuel 15:3) to "go, attack Amalek, and proscribe all that belongs to him. Spare no one, but kill alike men and women, infants and sucklings, oxen and sheep, camels and asses!" Saul was to be the instrument by which G-d wiped out the Amalekites. However, Saul did not do as G-d commanded, and the war with Amalek continues, throughout the ages.




The Zohar adds another dimension to the text, another layer of interpretation to the battle with Amalek. First of all, the Zohar places the Amalekites as one of the "five sections of among the 'mixed multitude'.4 Not only do Amalekites attack the Israelites from without, but also from within, the mixed multitude having been said to have provoked the incident with the golden calf. They are seen as "evil powers... [which]...prevail over Israel"5 All five sections of the mixed multitude, including Amalek, "bring the world back to the state of 'tohu and bohu' [ie, chaos], and they caused the destruction of the Temple. But as 'tohu and bohu' gave place to light, so when G-d reveals Himself they will be wiped off the earth. But withal redemption will not be complete until Amalek will be exterminated" completely.6



The sin of Moshe in striking the rock when he was told to talk to it (Numbers 20:8) is said by the Zohar to have been provoked but the Amalekites among the mixed multitude.7 Amalek is compared with demons and evil spirits and "there is none so cursed among them [ie demons and evil spirits] as Amalek, who is the evil serpent, the 'strange god' He is the cause of all unchastity and murder, and his twin-soul is the poison of idolatry, the two together being called Samael (lit. poison-god). There is more than on Samael, and they are not all equal, but this side of the serpent is accursed above them all."8 Thus Amalek is seen by the Zohar as the embodiment of evil, an evil both within and without, even before the incident at Rephidim.


Commenting on the events at Rephidim, the Zohar states "when the Israelites are worthy, then they dismiss these evil powers, and they have no dominion over them"9 The Zohar does not then go on to say what makes the Israelites worthy, but certainly the text and commentary I have dealt with in addition to the Zohar, would seem to indicate it is when we both have faith that G-d is with us, and when we obey His Torah. The Israelites, at Rephidim, tried G-d, were not faithful, and thus the evil from within, enabled the evil from without to attack the weakest who are seen as being the weakest in faith.


The Amalekites, who must have, like the neighboring nations, heard about the wonders which G-d performed in taking Israel out of Egypt, nonetheless, did not stand in awe of G-d. They were the first of the nations to attack Israel after the crossing of the Sea of Reeds. This lack of awe, of fear of G-d, shows just how evil Amalek is. The Zohar sees this as a war not only against Israel, but also against G-d Himself. This was not a battle of flesh and blood alone, "but against Samael, who was coming down to assist Amalek." Joshua is seen as being aided by Metron, which the Zohar connects with youth, while Moshe is aided and united with the Shekinah.10 The battle is thus waged both on earth and in heaven, "the battle with Amalek was waged on both fronts, both on high and below; for at that time the evil serpent gathered all its forces both above and below. It is the way of a serpent to lie in wait on the cross-roads. So Amalek, the evil serpent of Israel, was lying in wait for them."11



The evil within and without is what G-d does battle with from generation to generation. "R. Joshua said: There never was a generation of men, nor ever will be, in this world without this evil seed, and the Holy One, blessed be He, carries on His war against it. Of such, it is written: 'Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless thou the L-RD, O my soul, Hallelukah!' "12 Amalek is said to dwell "'...in the south of the land': the evil inclination, the seducer of man, is always in his body."13



Amalek is the evil inclination that the Israelites carried within them, and which they chose to follow in their trying of G-d, their lack of faithfulness. Amalek is also those who do not stand in awe, in fear of G-d, and who thus oppose Israel, G-d's servant. From age to age, there have always been those among Israel who questioned G-d's existence and presence among us, who were unfaithful to the eternal covenant of the Torah. And, from age to age, there have always been people who act as Amalek, attacking us without fear of G-d, only fearing men. When the Israel is at its weakest in faith, in observance, that is when those who do not fear G-d find an opening and attack. It is my opinion that this is what the commentaries and the Zohar are trying to teach us, a lesson that fits well with the text of the Torah.



Addendum



Rav Levi Yitzkak, when approaching the evil impulse, teaches that the evil impulse can be harnessed for good. The evil impulse has enormous energy, and therefore, great potential if turned towards something good. If, as some see it, Amalek is the evil impulse, then certainly Rav Levi Yitzkak would recommend harnessing the energy of Amalek within for good. But what about Amalek as the enemy from without, who is, nonetheless, only able to attack us when we miss the mark, stray from the way G-d has set for us? We can certainly turn our own evil impulse to good purposes, but what of that of others? In that Amalek is only able to attack us when we have fallen short, we have some control over the situation. However, once Amalek is free to attack, what can be done? Certainly we can repent, but is there a way to turn the energy of the external evil to good? Without knowing for certain what Rav Levi Yitzkak would say, I can only base my conjecture on what I know of his approach to the evil impulse. Amalek is an enemy because, as the Torah says, he has no fear of G-d. Without a fear or awe of G-d, Amalek follows his evil impulse easily. Could we not approach Amalek and turn him around, in affect whipping out the old enemy and replacing it with good? Such was done by a Hazzan who turned a Neo-Nazi, a spiritual follower of Amalek, into a tolerant human being. The old Neo-Nazi was gone, to be replaced with a G-d fearing human being. Certainly such transformations can take place on the individual level, leaving one less Amalekite out to destroy us, one more person whose evil impulse has been harnessed for good.»


End Notes


1 Dr. J.H. Hertz, C.H., ed., The Pentateuch and Haftorahs (London: Soncino Press, 1960) 279.



2 Rabbi Nosson Sherman, The Stone Cumash (New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd., 1993) 391.



3 All quotes from the Tanach, unless otherwise stated, are from Tanakh, The Holy Scriptures. (Philadelphia, Jerusalem: Jewish Publication Society, 1985.).



4 Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, section 1, page 25a



5 Ibid, page 25b



6 Ibid, page 25b



7 Ibid, page 28b



8 Ibid, page 29a



9 Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, section 2, page 64b



10 Ibid, pages 65a-b



11 Ibid, page 194b



12 Ibid, page 76a



13 Soncino Zohar, Bemidbar, section 3, page 169a



Bibliography



Dr. J.H. Hertz, C.H., ed., The Pentateuch and Haftorahs (London: Soncino Press, 1960).



Rabbi Nosson Sherman, The Stone Cumash (New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd., 1993).



Tne Soncino Zohar on CD-ROM.



Tanakh, The Holy Scriptures. (Philadelphia, Jerusalem: Jewish Publication Society, 1985.).




→Verbo←
 hebraico שָׂטַן (sâtan), pode significa “atacar” (figurativamente) ou “acusar”; 
e este verbo deu origem aos SUBSTANTIVOS:



→ שָׂטָן (sâtân) =  “adversário” , “opositor” ou “oponente”

→ שִׂטנָה (sitnâh) = “acusação” ou “inimizade”.


O substantivo שָּׂטָן (sâtân) não é um nome próprio, como alguns equivocadamente pensam, e esse é o motivo desta palavra ser empregada em diversas ocasiões nas Escriturais referindo-se a simples pessoas, como em I Rs 11:14, II Sm 19:22 (23 na versão hebraica), Sl 38:20, e outros.



Entretanto, é necessário notarmos que TODAS as 13 ocorrências da expressão הַשָּׂטָן (ha sâtân), onde há a presença do artigo definido הַ (ha = o) PRECEDENDO a palavra  שָּׂטָן (sâtân = Adversário), são usadas ▬►EXCLUSIVAMENTE◄▬ para um ser ESPIRITUAL e OPOSITOR dos homens.
Estas 14 ocorrências da expressão  הַשָּׂטָן (ha sâtân = o adversário), são:

▬► Êxodo 17:8

→ Yob (vulgo “Job”) 1:6, 1:7, 1:8, 1:9, 1:12, 2:1, 2:2, 2:3, 2:4, 2:6 e 2:7

→ Zekaryâhu (vulgo “Zacarias”) 3:1 e 3:2



'Satan significa diabo, demónio', explica a escoliasta brasileira Cecília Ben David, coordenadora de Educação do Centro da Cultura Judaica. Formada em Letras pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP) e com especializações feitas em Israel, a professora afirma que existem erros se se baseia numa interpretação e não na tradução literal da palavra. '[Alguém pode] interpretar de acordo com alguma Bíblia que tem uma tradução errada ou de acordo com o pensamento dele', afirma ela, ao contar que é muito comum encontrar erros de tradução em bíblias, principalmente por desconhecimento por parte do tradutor. Ao longo dos séculos, os textos bíblicos têm sido traduzidos, do hebraico ou do grego, para dezenas de línguas.

Segundo a erudita, as palavras para 'adversário' em hebraico são 'oiev', 'mitnagued' ou 'iariv'. Professora de hebraico há mais de 40 anos, Zahava Shapiro, que nasceu em Tel-Aviv e hoje mora em Brasília, também afirma que a palavra 'Satan' significa diabo ou demónio, e que outros significados dependem da interpretação de cada pessoa.